Manual

True to Age, True to Gender

Todo lo que los educadores de adultos mayores y desarrolladores de programas educativos deberían saber sobre el capital de género, los problemas sociales y los valores de las mujeres mayores 

ÍNDICE

True to Age, True to Gender. Todo lo que los educadores de adultos mayores y desarrolladores de programas educativos deberían saber sobre el capital de género, los problemas sociales y los valores de las mujeres mayores.  

 

Editorial: 

Editores: Dušana Findeisen, Urška Majaron

Autores: Dušana Findeisen, Urška Majaron, Oana Dău-Gașpar, Alina-Oana Zamoșteanu, Daniel Muranyi, Doris Breaz, Mirna Fusaro, Giulia Sfreddo, Luísa Oliveira, Cecília Pinto, Christina Harms, Iryna Protsenko, Rosine Dotsey, Karine Duperret  

Revisores: Prof. Dr. Nives Ličen, Dr. Ana Krajnc, Professor Emerita

Corrector:

Correctora: Inma García Ruz

©:  

True to Age, True to Gender fue cofinanciado por la Comisión Europea.

CIP

ISBN

Introducción



Módulo 1

LA GENTE MAYOR, LAS MUJERES MAYORES Y EL COMPROMISO DE CADA UNA DE ELLAS

 

Módulo 2

EL LARGO CAMINO HACIA LOS DERECHOS, LA IGUALDAD Y LOS VALORES EUROPEOS

 

Módulo 3

PEQUEÑO MANUAL SOBRE EL GÉNERO

 

Módulo 4

EL ENVEJECIMIENTO Y EL SEXISMO EN LA VIDA DE LAS MUJERES MAYORES

 

Módulo 5

¡NO HAY QUE AVERGONZARSE DE LOS CUERPOS DE LAS MUJERES MAYORES!

 

Módulo 6

MUJERES MAYORES E IGUALDAD DE GÉNERO EN LOS PROGRAMAS DE EDUCACIÓN DE ADULTOS MAYORES

 

Módulo 7

MÉTODOS TIC PARA LA IGUALDAD DE GÉNERO



Anexo I: Historias de mujeres menospreciadas

Anexo II: Antecedentes conceptuales

“Fiel a la edad, fiel al género, (por sus siglas en inglés TAG: TRUE TO AGE, TRUE TO GENDER) es un proyecto Erasmus +, cofinanciado por la Comisión Europea. Trata del capital de género que aportado por las alumnas a los programas de educación de adultos mayores.

 

Comenzaremos el Manual planteando algunas preguntas esenciales.

 

¿Están preparados los educadores que participan en la educación de adultos mayores para identificar e incluir la experiencia de género de las mujeres, sus problemas sociales y valores en los programas educativos que se desarrollan para ellas?  

 

Por último, ¿en qué medida los valores de género, es decir, los valores de las mujeres, se solapan con los valores europeos fundamentales y universales? 

 

Ahora bien, la tarea de los educadores no se reduce únicamente a la transmisión de conocimientos disciplinarios y su papel no se limita únicamente a facilitar el aprendizaje de sus alumnos. Deben empoderar a los mayores siempre que sea posible, incluyendo su capital de género en el programa, abordando la igualdad de género, destacando la tercera edad y denigrando los estereotipos sociales sobre la vejez y el género.

 

Los educadores de adultos se ocupan de los valores y del cambio de actitudes. En relación con los valores sociales, cada sociedad (incluidas las sociedades europeas) mira retrospectivamente hacia su propia historia, derivando de ella su propio conjunto de valores. Los educadores de adultos también deben recordar que los valores están interconectados. Si uno de ellos es débil, los demás también se vuelven vulnerables. Un ejemplo de ello es la escasa igualdad de género en un país en el que los políticos varones toman decisiones sobre el cuerpo de las mujeres (la interrupción del embarazo, por ejemplo). Además, la democracia se ve amenazada cuando el gobierno no respeta el derecho, y la paz se ve amenazada cuando una gran parte del PIB se invierte en armas y fuerza militar, y una cantidad menor en educación y ciencia. Los valores tienen un gran impacto en la toma de decisiones, el compromiso, el comportamiento, las acciones y la cultura. 

 

También la experiencia de los socios del proyecto ha demostrado que solo unos pocos europeos podrían nombrar con certeza los “valores europeos” más básicos, aquellos de los que se derivan todos los demás valores de la Unión Europea.  

 

Además, los valores, ya sean individuales o sociales, no son estables. Por un lado, ¿qué valores sociales de las mujeres son importantes en las sociedades europeas de hoy y, por otro lado, en qué medida los valores europeos básicos (derechos humanos universales, principios democráticos, principios del Estado de Derecho, separación de la política y la religión, juicio basado en la razón, el ser humano como medida de todas las cosas) los cumplen? Los europeos de hoy piensan y actúan de forma humanista, es decir, de forma racional, secular, observando el Estado de Derecho, protegiendo democráticamente y respetando los derechos humanos. Ahora bien, ¿se aplican los valores y derechos básicos europeos por igual a hombres y mujeres?

 

Los valores de las mujeres pueden apoyarse tratando las cuestiones que afectan a su género. Así pues, esas cuestiones son los temas de los módulos de este Manual y los de un curso mixto correspondiente de “True to Age, True to Gender” para educadores de adultos. 

 

Cada módulo tiene un título corto y llamativo, seguido de un subtítulo más largo. Además, cada módulo comienza con una introducción que explica el tema del módulo, sus objetivos y su significado. A continuación, aparecen los títulos de tres unidades bajo el epígrafe El módulo en pocas palabras. Los educadores de adultos y los alumnos mayores se enfrentan sistemáticamente al reto de identificar las tesis importantes del Módulo y discutirlas.

 

Este manual consta de siete módulos y dos anexos, todos ellos redactados en inglés. Solo se traducirán los módulos a las diferentes lenguas nacionales. 

Los Editores

MÓDULOS

Gerda Taro
1910 - 1937

Pioneer of war photography
Gerda Taro, nee Gerta Pohorylle, was born in Stuttgart and educated in Leipzig, Germany. As she is from a Jewish family, she flees from the Nazis to Paris in 1933. There she lives a bohemian lifestyle with her friend Ruth Cerf and eventually meets Endre Ernő Friedmann, better known today as Robert Capa. Together, they start documenting the Spanish Civil War in 1935, after Gerda had invented their alter egos in order to better sell Endre's and her own pictures. Inspired by their own political convictions, they only take pictures of the the fight of the republican troops against the rebellious franquist troops. Both of them try to be as close to the action as possible - a goal which eventually led to Gerda's death. Despite the fact that her pictures only cover 1 year of the war, her pictures are those that went around the world. Together with Robert Capa and with David Seymour, she developed modern war photography as we know it today during this short period of time. Since she officially was Capa's agent and he sold many of her pictures as his own, it took until the 2000s until people began to recognize her as an artist in her own right rather than only his partner: In 2007, the so-called Mexican Suitcase was found in Mexico City, a suitcase containing thousands of negatives believed lost by Capa, Taro and Seymour. Since then, many photographs originally attributed to Capa are known to have been taken by Gerda. However, during her short life, Taro was well known and when she was killed in 1937 by a tank, - she was only 26 - thousands of people attended her funeral in Paris. The funeral procession, led by Pablo Neruda and Louis Aragon, became a demonstration against fascism.

Marie-Claire Chevalier
1955 - 2022

The one whose trial for illegal abortion changed the law against abortion in France
In 1971, Marie-Claire Chevalier was 16 years old when she became pregnant after being raped by a boy two years older than her in high school. The young woman asked her mother to help her have an abortion. The mother turned to an underground doctor, but her daughter suffered a hemorrhage that forced her to the hospital. Her rapist, arrested for stealing a car, decides to turn her in against his own freedom. She is directly accused, as are four other women, including her mother, because in 1971 the voluntary termination of a pregnancy was illegal in France and punishable by six months to two years in prison. She was then convicted at the Bobigny trial and all were defended by lawyer Gisèle Halimi. Gisèle Halimi made of this trial and of Marie-Claire Chevalier a political symbol for the right to abortion. The case will forever mark French history and symbolize real progress for women's rights. Extremely mediatized, the trial closely followed by many personalities ends on a brilliant victory. Three years later this judgement, things started to move. This event contributed to the adoption of the Veil law and the legalization of abortion in France in 1975.

Having suffered greatly from this trial, she attempted suicide. Then, she chose to return to anonymity by changing her name. At her death, she received tributes from the President of the Republic, Emmanuel Macron and feminist associations.

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very...
continue reading