Manuale

True to Age, True to Gender

Cosa dovrebbero sapere gli educatori per adulti e gli sviluppatori di programmi sul capitale di genere, le questioni sociali e i valori delle donne anziane

INDECE

True to Age, True to Gender. Cosa dovrebbero sapere gli educatori per adulti e gli sviluppatori di programmi sul capitale di genere, le questioni sociali e i valori delle donne anziane 

Redattori: 

Editori: Dušana Findeisen, Urška Majaron

Autori: Dušana Findeisen, Urška Majaron, Oana Dău-Gașpar, Alina-Oana Zamoșteanu, Daniel Muranyi, Doris Breaz, Mirna Fusaro, Giulia Sfreddo, Luísa Oliveira, Cecília Pinto, Christina Harms, Iryna Protsenko, Rosine Dotsey, Karine Duperret  

Revisori: Giulia Sfreddo, Mirna Fusaro

Design: Les Apprimeurs

 

True to Age, True to Gender co-finanziato dalla Commissione Europea

Introduzione



Modulo 1

PERSONE ANZIANE, DONNE ANZIANE E LORO COINVOLGIMENTO  

 

Modulo 2

LA LUNGA MARCIA PER I DIRITTI, L’UGUAGLIANZA E I VALORI EUROPEI

 

Modulo 3

PICCOLO MANUALE SUL GENERE

 

Modulo 4

AGEISMO E SESSISMO NELLE VITE DELLE DONNE ANZIANE

 

Modulo 5

NESSUNA VERGOGNA PER I CORPI DELLE DONNE ANZIANE 

 

Modulo 6

LE DONNE ANZIANE E LA PARITA’ DI GENERE NEI PROGRAMMI PER L’EDUCAZIONE DEGLI ADULTI 

 

Modulo 7

LE TIC NELLA PARITA’ DI GENERE

 

Allegato I: Storie di donne sottovalutate

Allegato II: Background concettuale

Introduzione

 

True to Age, True to Gender, “TAG” è un progetto Erasmus+ co-finanziato dalla Commissione Europea che si occupa del capitale di genere inteso come contributo ai programmi di educazione degli anziani da parte delle discenti donne. Approfondiremo di seguito l’argomento. 

 

Gli educatori di adulti che sono coinvolti nell'educazione degli anziani, sono in grado di identificare e includere l'esperienza di genere delle donne, le loro questioni sociali e i loro valori nei programmi educativi che sviluppano per loro? Gli educatori di adulti sono consapevoli del loro dovere di responsabilizzare gli studenti più anziani in generale e le studentesse anziane in particolare? Come possono dimostrare questa loro volontà? Dando spazio alle questioni sociali delle donne anziane nei loro programmi educativi diminuendo così gli stereotipi sulla vecchiaia. Agli educatori viene proposto di discutere le questioni di genere e di cambiare il linguaggio di genere in uno neutrale.

 

Il compito dell'educatore non si riduce alla trasmissione di conoscenze disciplinari e il suo ruolo non si limita a facilitare l'apprendimento dei propri studenti, ma dovrebbe comprendere anche le questioni di genere come l'uguaglianza di genere, ecc.

 

Infine, in che misura i valori di genere e i valori delle donne si sovrappongono ai valori europei fondamentali e universali?

 

Parlando di valori sociali, ogni società (comprese le società europee) guarda alla propria storia traendo da essa il proprio insieme di valori. Gli educatori di adulti dovrebbero anche ricordare che i valori sono interconnessi. Se uno di loro manca, gli altri perdono forza. Per illustrare questo punto, si parla di scarsa uguaglianza di genere quando in un paese i politici maschi decidono del corpo delle donne (interruzione di gravidanza, per esempio) e la democrazia è minacciata quando lo stato di diritto non è rispettato dal governo, Quando la pace è minacciata e una elevata quota del PIL è spesa in armi ed esercito, e una piccola parte in educazione e scienza. I valori hanno un grande impatto sul processo decisionale, l'impegno, il comportamento, le azioni e la cultura.

 

Inoltre, l'esperienza dei partner del progetto ha mostrato che solo poche persone potrebbero elencare con certezza i “valori europei” più basilari, quelli da cui derivano tutti gli altri. Di conseguenza, in questo manuale True to Age, True to Gender ci occupiamo di un confronto tra "valori sociali femminili" e valori europei fondamentali.

 

I valori, siano essi individuali o sociali, non sono stabili. Quali valori sociali delle donne sono importanti nelle società europee di oggi e quali sono i valori europei fondamentali (diritti umani universali; principi democratici; principi dello stato di diritto; separazione tra politica e religione; giudizio basato sulla ragione, l'essere umano come misura di tutti cose)? Gli europei di oggi pensano e agiscono in modo umanistico, vale a dire razionalmente, laicamente, osservando lo stato di diritto, proteggendo democraticamente e rispettosamente i diritti umani, ma ci si pone il quesito: i valori e i diritti europei fondamentali sono applicati allo stesso modo per uomini e donne?

 

I valori delle donne possono essere sostenuti discutendo le questioni del loro genere. Sono diventati gli argomenti dei moduli contenuti in questo Manuale e gli argomenti di un corrispondente corso True to age, True to Gender per educatori di adulti.

 

Ogni modulo ha un titolo breve seguito da un sottotitolo più lungo. Inoltre, ogni modulo ha un'introduzione che spiega l'argomento del modulo, gli obiettivi e significato. Seguono i titoli di tre unità sotto la voce Modulo in breve. Gli educatori per adulti o gli studenti più anziani sono infatti sistematicamente sfidati a riconoscere alcune importanti tesi presentate nel modulo ed eventualmente a discuterle.

Ci sono sette moduli e due allegati a questo manuale, tutti scritti in inglese. Soltanto i moduli saranno tradotti in tutte le lingue della partnership. 

Gli editori

MODULI

Gerda Taro
1910 - 1937

Pioneer of war photography
Gerda Taro, nee Gerta Pohorylle, was born in Stuttgart and educated in Leipzig, Germany. As she is from a Jewish family, she flees from the Nazis to Paris in 1933. There she lives a bohemian lifestyle with her friend Ruth Cerf and eventually meets Endre Ernő Friedmann, better known today as Robert Capa. Together, they start documenting the Spanish Civil War in 1935, after Gerda had invented their alter egos in order to better sell Endre's and her own pictures. Inspired by their own political convictions, they only take pictures of the the fight of the republican troops against the rebellious franquist troops. Both of them try to be as close to the action as possible - a goal which eventually led to Gerda's death. Despite the fact that her pictures only cover 1 year of the war, her pictures are those that went around the world. Together with Robert Capa and with David Seymour, she developed modern war photography as we know it today during this short period of time. Since she officially was Capa's agent and he sold many of her pictures as his own, it took until the 2000s until people began to recognize her as an artist in her own right rather than only his partner: In 2007, the so-called Mexican Suitcase was found in Mexico City, a suitcase containing thousands of negatives believed lost by Capa, Taro and Seymour. Since then, many photographs originally attributed to Capa are known to have been taken by Gerda. However, during her short life, Taro was well known and when she was killed in 1937 by a tank, - she was only 26 - thousands of people attended her funeral in Paris. The funeral procession, led by Pablo Neruda and Louis Aragon, became a demonstration against fascism.

Marie-Claire Chevalier
1955 - 2022

The one whose trial for illegal abortion changed the law against abortion in France
In 1971, Marie-Claire Chevalier was 16 years old when she became pregnant after being raped by a boy two years older than her in high school. The young woman asked her mother to help her have an abortion. The mother turned to an underground doctor, but her daughter suffered a hemorrhage that forced her to the hospital. Her rapist, arrested for stealing a car, decides to turn her in against his own freedom. She is directly accused, as are four other women, including her mother, because in 1971 the voluntary termination of a pregnancy was illegal in France and punishable by six months to two years in prison. She was then convicted at the Bobigny trial and all were defended by lawyer Gisèle Halimi. Gisèle Halimi made of this trial and of Marie-Claire Chevalier a political symbol for the right to abortion. The case will forever mark French history and symbolize real progress for women's rights. Extremely mediatized, the trial closely followed by many personalities ends on a brilliant victory. Three years later this judgement, things started to move. This event contributed to the adoption of the Veil law and the legalization of abortion in France in 1975.

Having suffered greatly from this trial, she attempted suicide. Then, she chose to return to anonymity by changing her name. At her death, she received tributes from the President of the Republic, Emmanuel Macron and feminist associations.

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very...
continue reading