Manuel

True to Age, True to Gender

Ce que les professionnels de la formation pour adultes doivent savoir à propos des valeurs, des enjeux sociaux et de l’héritage culturel des relations hommes/femmes des femmes âgées.

INDEX

True to Age, True to Gender

Ce que les professionnels de la formation pour adultes doivent savoir à propos des valeurs, des enjeux sociaux et de l’héritage culturel des relations hommes/femmes des femmes âgées.

 

Editeur: Les Apprimeurs, Paris, 2021

Rédacteurs en chef : Dušana Findeisen, 

Urška Majaron

Auteurs : Dušana Findeisen, 

Urška Majaron, Oana Dău-Gașpar, Alina-Oana Zamoșteanu, Daniel Muranyi, Doris Breaz, 

Mirna Fusaro, Giulia Sfreddo, Luísa Oliveira, Cecília Pinto, Christina Harms, Iryna Protsenko, Rosine Dotsey, Karine Duperret  

Photos : Janez Marolt (sauf. p. 48 - Unsplash & Tiago Muraro) 

Correcteurs : Prof. Dr. Nives Ličen, Prof. Dr. Ana Krajnc, Professor Emerita

Relecteur : Rosine Dotsey

Mise en page : Les Apprimeurs

True to Age, True to Gender 

a été cofinancé par la Commission européenne

Introduction



Module 1

PERSONNES ÂGÉES, FEMMES ÂGÉES ET LEUR MOBILISATION

 

Module 2

LA LONGUE MARCHE VERS LES DROITS, L'ÉGALITÉ ET LES VALEURS EUROPÉENNES

 

Module 3

PETIT MANUEL DU GENRE

 

Module 4

L'ÂGISME ET LE SEXISME DANS LA VIE DES FEMMES ÂGÉES

 

Module 5

LE CORPS DES FEMMES ÂGÉES : PAS DE HONTE !

 

Module 6

LES FEMMES ÂGÉES ET L'ÉGALITÉ DES SEXES DANS LES PROGRAMMES D'ÉDUCATION DES ADULTES ÂGÉS

 

Module 7

LES MÉTHODES TIC POUR L'ÉGALITÉ DES SEXES

 

Annexe I : Histoires de vie de femmes dépréciées

True to age, true to gender, TAG est un projet Erasmus+ cofinancé par la Commission européenne. Il traite du capital de genre, apporté par les femmes apprenantes aux programmes d'éducation des adultes âgés.  Nous commencerons ce manuel en nous posant quelques questions essentielles.

 

Les formateurs d'adultes, qui sont impliqués dans l'éducation des adultes âgés, sont-ils prêts à identifier et à inclure l'expérience sexuée des femmes, leurs problèmes sociaux et leurs valeurs dans les programmes éducatifs qu'ils développent à leur attention ? 

 

Les formateurs d'adultes sont-ils conscients de leur devoir d'autonomiser les apprenants âgés en général et plus particulièrement les femmes âgées ? Et si oui, de quelle manière peuvent-ils démontrer leur volonté de le faire ?  

 

Enfin, dans quelle mesure les valeurs liées au genre, et notamment les valeurs des femmes, se superposent-elles aux valeurs européennes fondamentales et universelles ? 

 

Aujourd'hui, la tâche des formateurs ne se réduit pas à la seule transmission des connaissances disciplinaires et leur rôle ne se limite pas à la seule facilitation de l'apprentissage de leurs apprenants. Ils doivent responsabiliser les apprenants âgés dans la mesure du possible en incluant leur capital sexué dans le programme, en abordant la question de l'égalité des sexes, en attirant l'attention sur la notion de vieillesse et en démystifiant les stéréotypes sociaux sur la vieillesse et le genre.

 

Les formateurs d'adultes sont concernés par les valeurs et le changement des mentalités. En ce qui concerne les valeurs sociales, chaque société (y compris les sociétés européennes) se penche sur sa propre histoire et en tire son propre ensemble de valeurs. Les formateurs d'adultes doivent également se rappeler que les valeurs sont interconnectées. Si l'une des valeurs est faible, les autres deviennent également vulnérables. Ainsi, l'égalité des sexes est faible dans un pays où les hommes politiques prennent des décisions concernant le corps des femmes (interruption de grossesse, par exemple). En outre, la démocratie est menacée lorsque le gouvernement ne respecte pas l'État de droit. Et la paix est menacée lorsqu'une grande partie du PIB est investie dans les armes et la force militaire, et qu'une plus petite partie est investie dans l'éducation et la science. Les valeurs ont un grand impact sur la prise de décision, l'engagement, le comportement, les actions et la culture. 

 

De plus, l'expérience des partenaires du projet a montré que seuls quelques Européens pouvaient citer avec certitude les "valeurs européennes" les plus fondamentales, celles dont découlent toutes les autres valeurs de l'Union européenne. 

 

En outre, les valeurs, qu'elles soient individuelles ou sociales, ne sont pas stables. D'une part, quelles sont les valeurs sociales importantes pour les femmes dans les sociétés européennes d'aujourd'hui et, d'autre part, comment les valeurs européennes fondamentales (droits de l'homme universels, principes démocratiques, principes de l'État de droit, séparation de la politique et de la religion, jugement fondé sur la raison, l'être humain comme mesure de toutes choses) les rencontrent-elles ? Les Européens d'aujourd'hui pensent et agissent de manière humaniste, c'est-à-dire de manière rationnelle, laïque, en observant l'État de droit, en protégeant démocratiquement et respectueusement les droits de l'homme. Mais, les valeurs et les droits européens fondamentaux sont-ils appliqués de la même manière aux hommes et aux femmes ?

 

Les valeurs des femmes peuvent être soutenues en discutant des questions qui concernent leur genre. Ces questions sont donc les thèmes des modules de ce manuel et ceux d'un cours mixte correspondant, True to Age, True to Gender, destiné aux formateurs d'adultes. 

 

Chaque module comporte un titre court et accrocheur, suivi d'un sous-titre plus long. En outre, chaque module commence par une introduction expliquant le sujet du module, ses objectifs et sa signification. Cette introduction est suivie des titres des trois unités sous le titre "Module en bref". Les éducateurs d'adultes et les apprenants plus âgés sont systématiquement invités à identifier les thèses importantes du module et à en discuter.

 

Ce manuel comprend sept modules et deux annexes, tous rédigés à l’origine en anglais, mais traduit en français. Seuls les modules seront traduits dans les différentes langues nationales

 

Les éditeurs

MODULES

Gerda Taro
1910 - 1937

Pioneer of war photography
Gerda Taro, nee Gerta Pohorylle, was born in Stuttgart and educated in Leipzig, Germany. As she is from a Jewish family, she flees from the Nazis to Paris in 1933. There she lives a bohemian lifestyle with her friend Ruth Cerf and eventually meets Endre Ernő Friedmann, better known today as Robert Capa. Together, they start documenting the Spanish Civil War in 1935, after Gerda had invented their alter egos in order to better sell Endre's and her own pictures. Inspired by their own political convictions, they only take pictures of the the fight of the republican troops against the rebellious franquist troops. Both of them try to be as close to the action as possible - a goal which eventually led to Gerda's death. Despite the fact that her pictures only cover 1 year of the war, her pictures are those that went around the world. Together with Robert Capa and with David Seymour, she developed modern war photography as we know it today during this short period of time. Since she officially was Capa's agent and he sold many of her pictures as his own, it took until the 2000s until people began to recognize her as an artist in her own right rather than only his partner: In 2007, the so-called Mexican Suitcase was found in Mexico City, a suitcase containing thousands of negatives believed lost by Capa, Taro and Seymour. Since then, many photographs originally attributed to Capa are known to have been taken by Gerda. However, during her short life, Taro was well known and when she was killed in 1937 by a tank, - she was only 26 - thousands of people attended her funeral in Paris. The funeral procession, led by Pablo Neruda and Louis Aragon, became a demonstration against fascism.

Marie-Claire Chevalier
1955 - 2022

The one whose trial for illegal abortion changed the law against abortion in France
In 1971, Marie-Claire Chevalier was 16 years old when she became pregnant after being raped by a boy two years older than her in high school. The young woman asked her mother to help her have an abortion. The mother turned to an underground doctor, but her daughter suffered a hemorrhage that forced her to the hospital. Her rapist, arrested for stealing a car, decides to turn her in against his own freedom. She is directly accused, as are four other women, including her mother, because in 1971 the voluntary termination of a pregnancy was illegal in France and punishable by six months to two years in prison. She was then convicted at the Bobigny trial and all were defended by lawyer Gisèle Halimi. Gisèle Halimi made of this trial and of Marie-Claire Chevalier a political symbol for the right to abortion. The case will forever mark French history and symbolize real progress for women's rights. Extremely mediatized, the trial closely followed by many personalities ends on a brilliant victory. Three years later this judgement, things started to move. This event contributed to the adoption of the Veil law and the legalization of abortion in France in 1975.

Having suffered greatly from this trial, she attempted suicide. Then, she chose to return to anonymity by changing her name. At her death, she received tributes from the President of the Republic, Emmanuel Macron and feminist associations.

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very...
continue reading