Učbenik

True to Age, True to Gender

Kaj morajo izobraževalci odraslih in razvijalci programov vedeti o socialno-kulturnem spolnem kapitalu žensk, o družbenih rečeh ter vrednotah

INDEX

True to Age, True to Gender. What adult educators and programme developers should know about older women’s gender capital, social issues and values

Publisher:

Editors: Dušana Findeisen, Urška Majaron

Authors: Dušana Findeisen, Urška Majaron, Oana Dău-Gașpar, Alina-Oana Zamoșteanu, Daniel Muranyi, Doris Breaz, Mirna Fusaro, Giulia Sfreddo, Luísa Oliveira, Cecília Pinto, Christina Harms, Iryna Protsenko, Rosine Dotsey, Karine Duperret

Reviewers: Prof. Dr. Nives Ličen, Dr. Ana Krajnc, Professor Emerita

Proof-reader: Natalie Asmussen

Design:

©:

True to Age, True to Gender was co-funded by the European Commission

CIP

ISBN

Uvod



Modul 1

STAREJŠI, STAREJŠE ŽENSKE IN NJIHOVA DRUŽBENA ANGAŽIRANOST

 

Modul 2

DOLGI POHOD K PRAVICAM, ENAKOSTI IN EVROPSKIM VREDNOTAM

 

Modul 3

KRATEK PRIROČNIK O SOCIALNO-KULTURNEM SPOLU

 

Modul 4

STARIZEM IN SEKSIZEMM V ŽIVLJENJU STAREJŠIH ŽENSK

 

Modul 5

ŽENSKE, NE SRAMUJTE SE SVOJEGA TELESA!

 

Modul 6

STAREJŠE ŽENSKE IN ENAKOST SOCIALNO-KULTURNIH SPOLOV V IZOBRAŽEVALNIH PROGRAMIH ZA STAREJŠE

 

Modul 7

METODE IKT V PODPORO ENAKOSTI OBEH SOCIALNO-KULTURNIH SPOLOV



Priloga I: Zgodbe prezrtih žensk

O starosti, o socialno-kulturnem spolu

 

TAG je projekt, ki je nastal v okviru programa Erasmus+ in ga je sofinancirala Evropska komisija. Projekt je posvečen vprašanjem kapitala socialno-kulturnega spola, ki naj ga starejše študentke prinesejo v programe izobraževanja starejših. Prav, zdaj pa si postavimo nekaj vprašanj. 

 

So izobraževalci odraslih, ki se ukvarjajo z izobraževanjem starejših, pripravljeni prepoznati in vključiti izkušnje ženske, predstavnic svojega socialno-kulturnega spola? Ali so pripravljeni vključiti družbena vprašanja in vrednote žensk v izobraževalne programe, ki jih razvijajo za starejše študentke? Se izobraževalci odraslih zavedajo, da so dolžni opolnomočiti starejše študente na splošno in prav posebej starejše študentke? Kako lahko to svojo pripravljenost izkažejo? Tako, da v programe izobraževanja starejših uvedejo družbena vprašanja žensk, tako, da omilijo stereotipe o starosti in starejših ženskah. Izobraževalce odraslih nadalje prsimo, da razpravljajo o vprašanjih socialno-kulturnega spola tako, da »ospoljeno« znanje prenesejo na študente, pri tem pa skrbno pazijo, da uporabljajo namesto »ospoljenega« jezika jezik, ki je nevtralen.

 

Naloga izobraževalcev odraslih ni le prenašanje disciplinarnega znanjaf in njihova vloga ni omejena na lajšanje učenja svojih študentov. Zakaj naj izobraževalci odraslih obravnavajo vprašanja socialno-kulturnega spola, kot je denimo enakost spolov itd.?

 

Nazadnje, do kakšne mere se vrednote, ki pripadajo enemu ali drugemu socialno-kulturnemu spolu, to je vrednote žensk, prekrivajo s temeljnimi in univerzalnimi evropskimi vrednotami? 

 

Glede družbenih vrednot povejmo, da se sleherna družba (tudi evropske družbe) ozira na svojo lastno zgodovino, iz katere izhaja družbi lasten niz vrednost. Izobraževalci odraslih morajo vedeti tudi, da so vrednote prepletene, če umanjka ena od njih, to naredi druge vrednote krhke. V osvetlitev povedanega, v državi, kjer moški politiki odločajo o ženskem telesu (npr. prekinitev nosečnosti) in v državi, kjer je zaradi pomanjkanja vladavine prava demokracija ogrožena, je težko govoriti o dobro razviti enakosti spolov. V takšni državi tudi ne moremo govoriti o mirni prihodnosti, če se velik del domačega bruto proizvoda nameni naložbam v orožje in vojsko in manjši v izobraževanje in znanost. Vrednote imajo velik vplivna sprejemanje odločitev, zavezanost posameznikov, obnašanje, delovanje in kulturo. 

 

Še več, izkušnje projektnih partnerjev so pokazale, da le malo Evropejcev lahko prepričano našteje večino temeljnih “evropskih vrednot”, tistih vrednot torej, iz katerih izhajajo vse druge vrednote. Zato se v tem priročniku ukvarjamo s primerjavo “ženskih družbenih vrednot” in temeljnih evropskih vrednot.

Poleg tega, individualne ali družbene vrednote niso stabilne. Katere družbene vrednote žensk so pomembne v današnjih evropskih družbah in kako se v njih odslikavajo evropske temeljne vrednote (univerzalne človekove pravice, demokratična načela, načela vladavine prava, ločevanje politike od religij, zdrava presoja, človek, merilo vsega)? Današnji Evropejci mislijo in delujejo humanistično, tj. razumsko, posvetno, ob upoštevanju vladavine prava, demokratično, pri čemer so spoštljivi do človekovih pravic. Vprašanje, ki si ga zdaj postavljamo je, ali so te evropske vrednote in pravice enako navzoče pri moških in ženskah?



Vrednote žensk je moč podpreti z razpravo o vprašanjih njihovega socialno-kulturnega spola. Vrednote žensk so predmet modulov tega priročnika in so predmet obravnave multimodalnega tečaja O starosti, o socialno-kulturnem spolu, ki ga namenjamo izobraževalcem odraslih. 

 

Vsak od sedmih modulov ima kratek, zanimiv naslov, ki mu sledi daljši podnaslov. Vsak modul sestoji iz uvoda, v katerem razložimo predmet modula, naštejemo njegove smotre in pomen. Sledijo mu naslovi treh učnih enot s skupnim naslovom Modul na kratko. Izobraževalci odraslih ali starejši študenti morajo prepoznati nekatere pomembne teze, ki jih predstavljamo v posameznih modulih in, če je le mogoče, naj o njih razpravljajo.

 

V priročniku je sedem modulov in dve prilogi. Prilogi sta pisani v angleškem jeziku. V slovenski jezik pa smo prevedli le module in dve zgodbi prezrtih Slovenk. 

 

Urednici

MODULOV

Gerda Taro
1910 - 1937

Pioneer of war photography
Gerda Taro, nee Gerta Pohorylle, was born in Stuttgart and educated in Leipzig, Germany. As she is from a Jewish family, she flees from the Nazis to Paris in 1933. There she lives a bohemian lifestyle with her friend Ruth Cerf and eventually meets Endre Ernő Friedmann, better known today as Robert Capa. Together, they start documenting the Spanish Civil War in 1935, after Gerda had invented their alter egos in order to better sell Endre's and her own pictures. Inspired by their own political convictions, they only take pictures of the the fight of the republican troops against the rebellious franquist troops. Both of them try to be as close to the action as possible - a goal which eventually led to Gerda's death. Despite the fact that her pictures only cover 1 year of the war, her pictures are those that went around the world. Together with Robert Capa and with David Seymour, she developed modern war photography as we know it today during this short period of time. Since she officially was Capa's agent and he sold many of her pictures as his own, it took until the 2000s until people began to recognize her as an artist in her own right rather than only his partner: In 2007, the so-called Mexican Suitcase was found in Mexico City, a suitcase containing thousands of negatives believed lost by Capa, Taro and Seymour. Since then, many photographs originally attributed to Capa are known to have been taken by Gerda. However, during her short life, Taro was well known and when she was killed in 1937 by a tank, - she was only 26 - thousands of people attended her funeral in Paris. The funeral procession, led by Pablo Neruda and Louis Aragon, became a demonstration against fascism.

Marie-Claire Chevalier
1955 - 2022

The one whose trial for illegal abortion changed the law against abortion in France
In 1971, Marie-Claire Chevalier was 16 years old when she became pregnant after being raped by a boy two years older than her in high school. The young woman asked her mother to help her have an abortion. The mother turned to an underground doctor, but her daughter suffered a hemorrhage that forced her to the hospital. Her rapist, arrested for stealing a car, decides to turn her in against his own freedom. She is directly accused, as are four other women, including her mother, because in 1971 the voluntary termination of a pregnancy was illegal in France and punishable by six months to two years in prison. She was then convicted at the Bobigny trial and all were defended by lawyer Gisèle Halimi. Gisèle Halimi made of this trial and of Marie-Claire Chevalier a political symbol for the right to abortion. The case will forever mark French history and symbolize real progress for women's rights. Extremely mediatized, the trial closely followed by many personalities ends on a brilliant victory. Three years later this judgement, things started to move. This event contributed to the adoption of the Veil law and the legalization of abortion in France in 1975.

Having suffered greatly from this trial, she attempted suicide. Then, she chose to return to anonymity by changing her name. At her death, she received tributes from the President of the Republic, Emmanuel Macron and feminist associations.

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very...
continue reading