Manual

True to Age, True to Gender

O que os/as educadoras e criadoras de programas de educação de adultos devem saber sobre o capital de género, as questões sociais e os valores das mulheres idosas

ÍNDICE

True to Age, True to Gender. What adult educators and programme developers should know about older women’s gender capital, social issues and values

Publisher:

Editors: Dušana Findeisen, Urška Majaron

Authors: Dušana Findeisen, Urška Majaron, Oana Dău-Gașpar, Alina-Oana Zamoșteanu, Daniel Muranyi, Doris Breaz, Mirna Fusaro, Giulia Sfreddo, Luísa Oliveira, Cecília Pinto, Christina Harms, Iryna Protsenko, Rosine Dotsey, Karine Duperret

Reviewers: Prof. Dr. Nives Ličen, Dr. Ana Krajnc, Professor Emerita

Proof-reader: Natalie Asmussen

Design:

©:

True to Age, True to Gender was co-funded by the European Commission

CIP

ISBN

Introdução



Módulo 1

PESSOAS IDOSAS, MULHERES IDOSAS E O SEU ENVOLVIMENTO

 

Módulo 2

A LONGA MARCHA PARA OS DIREITOS, A IGUALDADE E OS VALORES EUROPEUS

 

Módulo 3

PEQUENO MANUAL SOBRE GÉNERO

 

Módulo 4

IDADISMO E SEXISMO NA VIDA DE MULHERES IDOSAS

 

Módulo 5

NENHUMA VERGONHA DOS CORPOS FEMININOS MAIS VELHOS!

 

Módulo 6

MULHERES IDOSAS E IGUALDADE DE GÉNERO NOS PROGRAMAS DE EDUCAÇÃO DE ADULTOS IDOSOS

 

Módulo 7

MÉTODOS TIC PARA A IGUALDADE DE GÉNERO

 

Anexo I: HISTÓRIAS DE MULHERES DESVALORIZADAS

Anexo II: Antecedentes Conceituais

True to Age, True to gender, TAG, é um projeto Erasmus+ cofinanciado pela Comissão Europeia que trata do capital de género introduzido por mulheres para programas de educação de adultas/os idosas/os. Dito isto, vamos colocar algumas perguntas.

 

Os educadores e as educadoras adultos/as, envolvidos/as na educação de pessoas idosas, estarão disponíveis para identificar e incluir a experiência de género das mulheres, das suas questões sociais e dos seus valores nos programas educativos que desenvolvem para elas? 

 

Estarão conscientes do seu dever de capacitar os aprendentes idosos em geral e as aprendentes idosas em particular? De que modo podem demonstrar a sua vontade? 

 

Ao dar espaço às questões sociais das mulheres idosas nos seus programas para pessoas adultas idosas, aliviam assim os estereótipos sobre a velhice e as mulheres idosas. Os educadores e as educadoras são convidados/as a discutir as questões de género, transmitindo conhecimentos de género enquanto têm o cuidado para mudar a linguagem de género para uma linguagem neutra.

 

Finalmente, em que medida os valores de género, ou seja, os valores das mulheres, se sobrepõem aos valores europeus fundamentais e universais?

 

Agora, a tarefa dos educadores e das educadoras não se reduz apenas à transmissão de conhecimentos disciplinares e o seu papel não se limita apenas à facilitação da aprendizagem das/os aprendentes. Devem capacitar os/as idosos/as sempre que possível, incluindo o seu capital de género no programa, abordando a igualdade de género, apontando para a velhice e denegrindo os estereótipos sociais sobre a velhice e o género.

 

Se um deles não existe, os outros ficam vulneráveis.   Para ilustrar este ponto, existe uma baixa igualdade de género num país onde os políticos homens decidem sobre o corpo das mulheres (interrupção da gravidez, por exemplo) e a democracia está ameaçada quando o Estado de Direito não é respeitado pelo governo, nem existem boas perspetivas de paz se uma grande parte do PIB é investida em armas e exército, e uma menor em educação e ciência. Os valores têm um grande impacto na tomada de decisão, compromisso, comportamento, ações e cultura.

 

Os educadores e as educadoras adultos/as preocupam-se com os valores e a mudança de atitudes. Em relação aos valores sociais, cada sociedade (as sociedades europeias incluídas) olha para a sua própria história, derivando dela o seu próprio conjunto de valores. Os educadores e as educadoras adultos/as devem também lembrar-se que os valores estão interligados. Se um deles é fraco, os outros tornam-se também vulneráveis. Um exemplo disto é a fraca igualdade de género num país onde os políticos masculinos tomam decisões sobre o corpo das mulheres (interrupção da gravidez, para citar um). Além disso, a democracia é ameaçada quando o governo não respeita o Estado de direito. E a paz é ameaçada quando uma grande parte do PIB é investida em armas e força militar, e uma pequena parte é investida em educação e ciência. Os valores têm um grande impacto na tomada de decisões, compromisso, comportamento, ações e cultura.

 

Além disso, a experiência dos parceiros do projeto mostrou que apenas poucos europeus poderiam nomear com certeza os "valores europeus" mais básicos, aqueles de que todos os outros valores são derivados. Como resultado disso, neste Manual True to Age, True to Gender, estamos preocupadas com uma comparação dos "valores sociais femininos” e dos valores europeus básicos.

 

Além disso, os valores, sejam eles individuais ou sociais, não são estáveis. Por um lado, quais são os valores sociais das mulheres mais importantes nas sociedades europeias atuais e, por outro lado, como é que os valores europeus básicos (direitos humanos universais; princípios democráticos; princípios do Estado de direito; separação entre política e religião; julgamento baseado na razão, o ser humano como medida de todas as coisas) os satisfazem? Os europeus de hoje pensam e agem de uma forma humanista, isto é, racional, secular, observando o Estado de direito, protegendo democrática e respeitosamente os direitos humanos. Agora, os valores e direitos europeus básicos são aplicados igualmente a homens e mulheres?

 

Os valores das mulheres podem ser apoiados através da discussão das questões que afetam o seu género. Assim, essas questões são os tópicos dos módulos deste Manual e os de um curso de formação combinada True to Age, True to Gender para educadores de adultos.

 

Cada Módulo tem um título curto e cativante seguido de um subtítulo mais longo. Além disso, cada módulo começa com uma introdução que explica o tema do módulo, os seus objetivos e o seu significado. Seguem-se os títulos de três unidades que, em síntese, compõem o Módulo. Tanto educadores de adultos como aprendentes idosas/os são sistematicamente desafiadas/os a reconhecer algumas teorias importantes apresentadas no Módulo e eventualmente discuti-las.

 

Este Manual é composto por sete módulos e dois anexos, todos escritos em inglês. Apenas os módulos serão traduzidos para as línguas nacionais. 

 

Os editores

MÓDULOS

Gerda Taro
1910 - 1937

Pioneer of war photography
Gerda Taro, nee Gerta Pohorylle, was born in Stuttgart and educated in Leipzig, Germany. As she is from a Jewish family, she flees from the Nazis to Paris in 1933. There she lives a bohemian lifestyle with her friend Ruth Cerf and eventually meets Endre Ernő Friedmann, better known today as Robert Capa. Together, they start documenting the Spanish Civil War in 1935, after Gerda had invented their alter egos in order to better sell Endre's and her own pictures. Inspired by their own political convictions, they only take pictures of the the fight of the republican troops against the rebellious franquist troops. Both of them try to be as close to the action as possible - a goal which eventually led to Gerda's death. Despite the fact that her pictures only cover 1 year of the war, her pictures are those that went around the world. Together with Robert Capa and with David Seymour, she developed modern war photography as we know it today during this short period of time. Since she officially was Capa's agent and he sold many of her pictures as his own, it took until the 2000s until people began to recognize her as an artist in her own right rather than only his partner: In 2007, the so-called Mexican Suitcase was found in Mexico City, a suitcase containing thousands of negatives believed lost by Capa, Taro and Seymour. Since then, many photographs originally attributed to Capa are known to have been taken by Gerda. However, during her short life, Taro was well known and when she was killed in 1937 by a tank, - she was only 26 - thousands of people attended her funeral in Paris. The funeral procession, led by Pablo Neruda and Louis Aragon, became a demonstration against fascism.

Marie-Claire Chevalier
1955 - 2022

The one whose trial for illegal abortion changed the law against abortion in France
In 1971, Marie-Claire Chevalier was 16 years old when she became pregnant after being raped by a boy two years older than her in high school. The young woman asked her mother to help her have an abortion. The mother turned to an underground doctor, but her daughter suffered a hemorrhage that forced her to the hospital. Her rapist, arrested for stealing a car, decides to turn her in against his own freedom. She is directly accused, as are four other women, including her mother, because in 1971 the voluntary termination of a pregnancy was illegal in France and punishable by six months to two years in prison. She was then convicted at the Bobigny trial and all were defended by lawyer Gisèle Halimi. Gisèle Halimi made of this trial and of Marie-Claire Chevalier a political symbol for the right to abortion. The case will forever mark French history and symbolize real progress for women's rights. Extremely mediatized, the trial closely followed by many personalities ends on a brilliant victory. Three years later this judgement, things started to move. This event contributed to the adoption of the Veil law and the legalization of abortion in France in 1975.

Having suffered greatly from this trial, she attempted suicide. Then, she chose to return to anonymity by changing her name. At her death, she received tributes from the President of the Republic, Emmanuel Macron and feminist associations.

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very...
continue reading