Atividade 7

Homem ou mulher?

 

Duração:

Aproximadamente 30 minutos de jogo + 30 minutos de discussão

 

Execução:

Esta atividade quer ajudar os aprendentes a compreender os papéis e estereótipos de género e as expetativas que são aprendidas e reconhecidas na nossa sociedade. O objetivo é

  • identificar e analisar os papéis estereotipados do género e as suas origens
  • analisar os efeitos nas escolhas de carreira para homens e mulheres
  • desafiar e minimizar e/ou eliminar perceções e ações estereotipadas em relação ao “outro” género
  • aceitar e apoiar as escolhas de carreira e de vida feitas pelos pares, mesmo que possam desafiar os estereótipos de papéis de género.

 

Divida os participantes em pequenos grupos, no máximo. 6 pessoas por grupo. Os grupos podem ser grupos mistos por sexo. Cada grupo atuará em dois cenários nos quais enfatizará ações estereotipadas de género. O outro grupo terá de identificar os estereótipos e atribuí-los ao género com o qual está relacionado.

Cada grupo pensa em dois cenários para jogar. As situações devem mostrar ações, empregos, atividades que representam um estereótipo de género. Para dar um exemplo muito básico: O grupo joga um jantar, um jogador age como a esposa (cozinha, limpa, levanta-se 10 vezes), enquanto os outros jogadores agem como outros membros da família (esperar para ser servido, não ajudar, etc.). Os outros grupos terão de reconhecer que ação é jogada e que estereótipo é representado.

Após a atividade, uma discussão ajuda à reflexão. Possíveis questões são:

  • Como e onde aprendemos a nossa perceção dos papéis masculinos e femininos? 
  • Estes papéis e descrições limitam ou ajudam-nos nas escolhas da vida? 
  • Alguma vez agiu de forma diferente de como o seu género é “suposto” agir ou comportar-se? 
  • Que outras conclusões/declarações tem sobre este tópico?
  • Quais são os seus sentimentos no final desta atividade?

 

É muito interessante compreender como são percebidos os estereótipos. O educador terá de investigar as ideias dos participantes e tentar plantar a semente da dúvida: será que todos identificam o mesmo estereótipo?

 

Materiais e Recursos

Uma sala vazia

Folhas de papel e uma caneta para o educador

Gerda Taro
1910 - 1937

Pioneer of war photography
Gerda Taro, nee Gerta Pohorylle, was born in Stuttgart and educated in Leipzig, Germany. As she is from a Jewish family, she flees from the Nazis to Paris in 1933. There she lives a bohemian lifestyle with her friend Ruth Cerf and eventually meets Endre Ernő Friedmann, better known today as Robert Capa. Together, they start documenting the Spanish Civil War in 1935, after Gerda had invented their alter egos in order to better sell Endre's and her own pictures. Inspired by their own political convictions, they only take pictures of the the fight of the republican troops against the rebellious franquist troops. Both of them try to be as close to the action as possible - a goal which eventually led to Gerda's death. Despite the fact that her pictures only cover 1 year of the war, her pictures are those that went around the world. Together with Robert Capa and with David Seymour, she developed modern war photography as we know it today during this short period of time. Since she officially was Capa's agent and he sold many of her pictures as his own, it took until the 2000s until people began to recognize her as an artist in her own right rather than only his partner: In 2007, the so-called Mexican Suitcase was found in Mexico City, a suitcase containing thousands of negatives believed lost by Capa, Taro and Seymour. Since then, many photographs originally attributed to Capa are known to have been taken by Gerda. However, during her short life, Taro was well known and when she was killed in 1937 by a tank, - she was only 26 - thousands of people attended her funeral in Paris. The funeral procession, led by Pablo Neruda and Louis Aragon, became a demonstration against fascism.

Marie-Claire Chevalier
1955 - 2022

The one whose trial for illegal abortion changed the law against abortion in France
In 1971, Marie-Claire Chevalier was 16 years old when she became pregnant after being raped by a boy two years older than her in high school. The young woman asked her mother to help her have an abortion. The mother turned to an underground doctor, but her daughter suffered a hemorrhage that forced her to the hospital. Her rapist, arrested for stealing a car, decides to turn her in against his own freedom. She is directly accused, as are four other women, including her mother, because in 1971 the voluntary termination of a pregnancy was illegal in France and punishable by six months to two years in prison. She was then convicted at the Bobigny trial and all were defended by lawyer Gisèle Halimi. Gisèle Halimi made of this trial and of Marie-Claire Chevalier a political symbol for the right to abortion. The case will forever mark French history and symbolize real progress for women's rights. Extremely mediatized, the trial closely followed by many personalities ends on a brilliant victory. Three years later this judgement, things started to move. This event contributed to the adoption of the Veil law and the legalization of abortion in France in 1975.

Having suffered greatly from this trial, she attempted suicide. Then, she chose to return to anonymity by changing her name. At her death, she received tributes from the President of the Republic, Emmanuel Macron and feminist associations.

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
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Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very talented and ready to share her ideas and stories with the world. But, that´s where she bumped into a big obstacle. At the beginning of the XX century being a female writer was seen as immoral work, especially for an educator. If she had risked meeting her goals, she could have lost her teaching job. She found a solution to this problem in her marriage by publishing her works under her husband's name. So, she was writing and waiting at home and he was the one receiving praise and applause at the premiers of the plays. Before dying, her husband confirmed the rumours circulating in theatre circles that she was the true author of his works.
continue reading

Maria Lejárraga
1874 – 1974

She was writing and her husband harvesting the glory, fame and money!
Writer, feminist, deputy, polyglot and socialist who opposed to the death penalty and legal prostitution. She advocated for education, work and equal rights for women in Spain. A very open-minded and visionary woman who had to pay a high price imposed by her gender.

María Lejárraga comes from the region of La Rioja from an economically stable middle class family. She was able to receive good education and became a teacher. During her teaching career she discovered her passion for writing. She was very...
continue reading